Principal Investigator: David J. Diner, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Proposal Title: Miniaturized Advanced MISR Camera for EOS Follow-on Mission
(a) Objectives and justification for work; (b) Accomplishments of prior years work; (c) Outline of proposed work and methodology; (d) One or two relevant recent publications authored by the PI or Co-I.
In the post EOS AM-1 era, the MISR Science Team envisions a long-term multi-angle remote sensing program based upon a new instrument concept that is considerably smaller and lighter than the present design yet also incorporates enhancements to broaden the scientific capability. As presently conceived, MISR-2 extends the multi-angle measurement capability by supplementing the four visible/near-infrared (VNIR) MISR-1 bands with two bands in the short-wave infrared (SWIR), at 1375 nm and 1600 nm. The first will provide direct measurement of cirrus cloud scattering phase functions and heightened sensitivity to very thin cirrus owing to the oblique viewing geometry. The second nearly doubles the MISR-1 wavelength range, enabling better conversions from spectral to broadband albedo, improved ability to distinguish among aerosol particles of different size, and sensitivity to cloud phase. By simplifying the system electronics design and eliminating on-board data averaging, MISR-2 takes advantage of modern spacecraft data handling technology to transmit all VNIR data globally at 275m resolution and the new SWIR data at 1.1km resolution. The MISR-2 On-Board Calibrator concept includes a 2-axis gimballed camera to establish absolute and angle-to-angle calibration of the 9 fixed cameras. This pointable camera would also be available for specialized scientific purposes. Along with these novel features, we have established the challenging goal of reducing the overall instrument system mass by at least a factor of 3, leading to a < 50 kg instrument that meets all original spatial, multi-angle, multi-spectral, and radiometric performance requirements. The size reduction will facilitate the use of smaller spacecraft and launch vehicles, and additionally enable a broader range of flight opportunities, including both sun-synchronous and non-sun-synchronous platforms, thereby further enhancing the science.
A principal key to meeting the MISR-2 objectives is to miniaturize the cameras. This proposal for the Instrument Incubator Program (IIP) is a 2-year effort to build and test a single prototype miniaturized and advanced camera, and to establish the size, mass, power, and cost savings we can anticipate for an EOS follow-on instrument. New technology in the areas of miniature optics and "chip-on-board" electronics will be used to construct a lightweight, high-performance, radiometric multi-spectral camera that fits in the palm of ones hand. Basing a MISR-2 instrument concept upon this camera design, we estimate that the overall system will meet our mass and size reduction goals. Construction of the MISR-2 prototype camera will include testing at both the component and camera system level. Along with demonstrating the feasibility of the design, key performance parameters such as image quality, throughput, signal-to-noise ratio, and dynamic range will be measured and compared to requirements established by the Science Team. In addition to the incorporation of new spectral bands, a new approach to mounting spectral filters on the detectors will be investigated to demonstrate the required manufacturing tolerances, and to reduce the adverse effects of scattering and multiple reflections relative to MISR-1. Commercial off-the-shelf detector technology of similar type to that needed for the flight program for the VNIR and the new SWIR bands will be used to minimize cost of the demonstration program while allowing the basic concept to be validated. Because of the novelty of the technologies and approaches we are proposing for MISR-2, successful demonstration within the IIP will reduce the risk of pursuing such a design within a rapid development program proposed in response to a future AO.
D.J. Diner, C.J. Bruegge, J.V. Martonchik, G.W. Bothwell, E.D. Danielson, V.G. Ford, L.E. Hovland, K.L. Jones, M.L. White, "A Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer for terrestrial remote sensing from the Earth Observing Sys-tem," Internatl. J. Imaging Sys. and Tech. 3, 92-107, 1991. D. J. Diner, J. C. Beckert, T. H. Reilly, C. J. Bruegge, J. E. Conel, R. A. Kahn, J. V. Martonchik. T. P. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. A. W. Gerstl, H. R. Gordon, J-P. Muller, R. B. Myneni, P. J. Sellers, B. Pinty, and M. M. Verstraete, "Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument description and experiment overview," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, July 1998.