ESTO Information Technologies
Concepts Development Data Acquisition
and Management Data Product
Generation Data Exploitation
For Science and Applications
Advanced Information Systems Technology:
Facilitating the transformation of Earth observation concepts into data, information, and knowledge to benefit society
Information technology plays a critical role in collecting, managing and analyzing very large amounts of Earth observation data and information. ESTO’s Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST) program serves the NASA research community by providing tools and techniques to acquire, process, access, visualize and otherwise communicate Earth science data.
Individual projects address the research community’s need for tools to simulate and develop sensor measurement concepts, as well as operations concepts and software systems to acquire and manage data for research and applications. The AIST program enables computer scientists to apply best practices from the rapidly evolving information technology fields to NASA’s unique interdisciplinary science challenges, to help the Earth science community to produce groundbreaking science and fully exploit the unique vantage point of space-based Earth observations.
Sensor Measurement Concepts Development
AIST provides tools to support the assessment of the types of measurements to be made, and how they are to be made. In particular, AIST projects enable the development of tradespace analysis tools and other technologies that aid in the design and analysis of quantitative observations.
Examples of Sensor Data Concepts Development:
Sensor Measurement Concepts Development in the context of wildfire monitoring:
NASA's Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) mission developed technologies designed to enable the development of future earth imaging with increased performance and reduced cost and mass. In particular, the EO-1 mission has flown the Advanced Land Imager (ALI), the Hyperion hyperspectral imager, and the Linear Etalon Imaging Spectrometer Array (LEISA) Atmospheric Corrector (LAC). Equipped with these instruments, EO-1 has been successful in helping develop sensor measurement concepts for wildfires.
AIST Projects relating to Sensor Measurement Concept Development:
|Name||Project Title||Project Summary Chart|
|Stephan Kolitz||EPOS for Coordination of Asynchronous Sensor Webs
|Simone Tanelli||Unified Simulator for Earth Remote Sensing (USERS)
|Paul Rosen||iISCE: InSAR Scientific Computing Environment on the Cloud
Data Acquisition and Management
Data Acquisition and Management refers to the collection and management of high-volume and/or high-rate data. AIST supports the building and operation of infrastructures that are necessary for sensor data acquisition, particularly for sensors. Projects include sensor webs, as well as innovations pertaining to how systems are operated, and how data is acquired and disseminated.
Examples of Data Acquisition and Management:● ● ● ●
Data Acquisition and Management in the context of wildfire monitoring: As a general example, after measurement concepts have been developed, sensor webs may be created to enable the autonomous collection of and communication between ground and space-based observations, thus supporting rapid response to wildfires and volcanic activity.
Example: Dan Mandl's project, A High Performance, Onboard Multicore Intelligent Payload Module for Orbital and Suborbital Remote Sensing Missions, utilizes onboard technologies to improve onboard processing capabilities for high data rate missions, such as HyspIRI. In particular, a concept called the Intelligent Payload Module has been developed to determine which data to collect based on the supporting spacecraft's environment. For example, when indications of volcanic events or wild fires are detected, the spacecraft would gather information specific to thermal phenomena, such as extent and spectra.
The concept has already been shown to be useful for the Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) mission, where over 5,000 onboard products have been successfully generated. The following image comes from a report by Mandl, et al.
AIST Projects relating to Data Acquisition and Management:
Data Product Generation
Data Product Generation is the creation of interdisciplinary products that aggregate observational data, thus improving the scientific value of the data at reduced costs. AIST projects catering to data product generation focus on, but are not limited to, real-time data processing and analysis.
Examples of Data Product Generation:● ● ● ●
Data Product Generation in the context of wildfire monitoring: Once data is collected, it may be used to create hotspot images and other visuals which map the temperature distributions of lava flows and forest fires. Data products from the Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) mission, including images taken by the Hyperion hyperspectral and Advanced Land Imager (ALI) multispectral instruments, are available to the public via the U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center and EO-1 websites.
The following images taken by the ALI instrument, for example, are images regarding forest fire applications from Tuscon, Arizona/Aspen (left), Robert, Montana (center), and Simi Valley, California (right).
Images retrieved via the EO-1 website.
AIST Projects relating to Data Product Generation:
Data Exploitation for Science and Applications
Data Exploitation for Science and Applications focuses on the transformation of data products into actionable information. Projects may include modeling and visualization tools, as well as collaborative environments. In general, projects aim to advance the discovery, access, and use of sensor data within the Earth Science community. Projects in this category often extend to applications in multiple areas of science.
Click to view examples of Data Exploitation for Science and Applications:● ● ● ●
Data Exploitation for Science and Applications in the context of wildfire monitoring: Data products are implemented to advance understanding of past, present, and future fire activities. Possible applications include displays mapping the source and flow of volcanoes, global information systems, and other collaborative monitoring systems.
As a particular example, the extended EO-1 mission encompasses a partnership between NASA and the U.S. Geological Survey, which institutes the commercial sale of images taken by the ALI and Hyperion instruments. This widespread availability of EO-1 imagery has then allowed an increase of awareness to new science opportunities, and a maximized usage of EO-1 technologies.
AIST Projects relating to Data Exploitation for Science and Applications: